Newsletter: Volume 33, November / December
SALE! through December 7 Jeff's books, Marathon! and Training
Journal - now $11.95! Galloway's Interactive Software by PC Coach
- now $59.95!
To order, go to our Merchandise
section. This is a great time to get one for yourself or as a gift.
Cold Weather Running:
Don't Be Held Hostage By the Weather!
Generally, cold weather makes running easier. Since there is less
heat buildup, there is less body fluid lost, and the cool temperature
makes running more invigorating. When the mercury drops below 50
degrees F, however, you'll have to start thinking of protective
1. Wear a series of thin layers. Close to your skin, you'll want
something warm. Polypro is one of a series of winter fibers that
keep the warmth close to the skin but allow extra heat and perspiration
2. Continue to add external layers, adjusting to the temperature
and wind conditions.
3. Cover up all extremities with extra layering: hands, ears, toes.
4. Men, wear an extra layer or two as underwear, as you need.
5. In extreme cold (when temperature or wind chill is below 10
degrees F), do not expose any skin if possible. Even when there
is minimal exposure, put Vaseline or other cold weather insulation/protection
on any area which may incidentally be hit by the wind (eyelids,
6. Be sure to coat your shoes or use socks that insulate your feet.
Most running shoes are designed to let heat out and cold into your
feet, which can cause frostbite on days colder than 32 degrees F.
Remember that you generate a significant wind chill effect on your
feet as you move them through the running motion.
7. As you warm up through running, peel off each layer before you
start sweating. Too much sweat accumulation will freeze and cause
Warm-ups That Take the Sting
Out of Winter
1. On very cold days, bundle up and exercise for a very few minutes
indoors. You may walk, jog in place, use an indoor track, or exercise
on the machines (cycle, rowing, stair, etc.). Before you start sweating,
go outdoors and you'll have a reservoir of warmth to get you down
2. Start your run/walk going into the wind. This allows you to
come back with the wind.
3. If you start to get very warm, remove an outside layer of clothing
or unzip your outer layer, if applicable. A garment with long sleeves
allows you to tie it around your waist or put it in your fanny pack
- because you may need it later.
4. On cold days, pick environments where you could seek refuge
for at least a few minutes if you need to.
5. On very cold or windy days, alternate between inside and out.
If you have an indoor facility, it helps to come inside when you
start to get cold. Exercise indoors only long enough to take the
sting away - but head outdoors before you start sweating.
6. Don't let yourself sweat because it is likely to freeze and
leave you very cold. Remove a layer or go outside before the sweat
From Jeff Galloway's Marathon!
(Phidippides Publications, 2000), pp. 183-184 and Galloway's
Book on Running by Jeff Galloway
Jeff lists 25 ideas for cheerful winter running in the December,
2001 Runner's World, p. 34. www.runnersworld.com
Gifts for Runners
What state has more runners per capita? Name the top three states
in total number of runners.
- The American Sports Data, Inc. Superstudy of Sports Participation
reported that 33,680,000 Americans ran one or more days last year.
- 9,801,000 Americans ran 100 or more days in 2000.
- In 2000, 47.2% of runners were women compared with 44.9% in
- California has the most runners - 4,000,000, Texas is next -
2.6 million, and New York is third - 2.3 million.
- Vermont has the most runners per capita than any other state.
From "Warmups" in the November, 2001 issue of Runner's
edited by Marty Post. For more info, go to
www.americansportsdata.com/ss_participation1.htm and www.runningusa.org.
Motivation: It Starts With a
Date on the Calendar
A significant mission, such as a marathon, will get your attention
and motivate you to do things you haven't done in years. Instead
of rolling over, you'll get out of bed an hour early and cover the
miles, feeling better for it. After those "bad days,˛ at work,
you'll find a way to get on the roads because you have that race
scribbled on your kitchen calendar. You're rewarded by an erasure
of most of the stress of the day. There's something powerful about
the act of giving yourself a deadline that pushes you down the road
on days when you'd just as soon cut the run short.
From Jeff Galloway's Marathon!
(Phidippides Publications, 2000), p. 82
Reduce the Anticipated Discomfort of the Run
If you're scheduled for a four-mile continuous run and are experiencing
left brain stress, tell that negative nagger that you're only going
to go one or two miles and will walk most of it. Most runners who
do that end up finishing the four-miler feeling great. Even if you
don't feel up to doing a race but know it would be a good conditioner
for you, talk yourself down to an easier time goal or to merely
running the first half of the race. With the pressure off, most
racers run the whole race in a surprisingly good time.
From Jeff Galloway's Marathon!
(Phidippides Publications, 2000), p. 78
Feedback from marathon advice:
"I felt great at the finish and my Śrecovery' has been remarkable.
. . I will be running tomorrow." Craig Blakeley
"My 23rd finish . . . I walked each mile . . . I placed second
in my age group." Charlie Claycomb
"I must have passed hundreds of people." Heather Royer
"I achieved all of my goals . . . to finish . . . under five
hours . . . to have a great time." Sherry Kemp
Jeff's FREE clinics and/or program kickoffs
Dec. 1 Charlotte Half Marathon Program Kickoff 9:30 am at
the Uptown YMCA on College Street at 2nd and 3rd
Dec. 1 Atlanta - Gwinnett Marathon Program Kickoff, 7:00
am at Simpsonwood
Dec. 2 Atlanta Half Marathon Program and Marathon Program
Kickoff, 7:00 am at the Galloway School, 215 W. Wieuca Road
Dec. 16 Tucson, Az. 2:00 pm at the All About Running And
Walking Store at 12112 No. Rancho Vistoso Blvd. in Oro Valley, 520/469-7084
Jan. 4-6 Jeff will be in Orlando for the Walt Disney Marathon.
Clinic times TBA.
Jan. 5 Nashville Half Marathon Program 8:00 am at the River
Park in Brentwood
Jan. 14 Tucson - Clinic with Jeff All About Running And
Walking Store at 12112 No. Rancho Vistoso Blvd. in Oro Valley, 520/469-7084
Jan. 18-20 Houston - Compaq Houston Marathon Clinic with
Jeff - Friday, 4:00 pm & Saturday, 11:00 am http://www.compaqhoustonmarathon.com/
Jan. 26 San Francisco Club Galloway Kickoff - time and place
Jan. 27 San Francisco - Jeff will be at The Home Depot San
Francisco Half Marathon http://www.rhodyco.com/
Insulin: Friend or Foe?
Insulin has gotten a bad rap. Most of us know little about it,
and what we do know is all negative. When the topic of insulin comes
up, it's almost always in connection with weight gain and diabetes.
We are taught that eating high-glycemic carbohydrates (e.g. refined
sugars and processed grains) results in a rush of blood sugar into
the bloodstream, followed by a rush of insulin, whose job is to
clear out the sugars for use as energy fuel. The resulting sudden
drop in blood sugar triggers hunger, which in turn causes overeating.
Over time, a repeated pattern of such insulin spikes can lead to
insulin resistance - that is, type 2 diabetes. Thus, the public
is always cautioned to eat and drink in such a way as to minimize
All of this is true, as far as it goes. The average couch potato
probably needs to hear nothing more about insulin. But for runners,
it's only half the story. During and after workouts and races, insulin
spikes are highly desirable for runners. Insulin plays a critical
role in giving runners quick energy during exercise and accelerating
recovery following exercise. In this article, I will talk about
the role of insulin during exercise. I'll address recovery in a
Insulin is a hormone that is created in the pancreas and is released
when we consume carbohydrate. A primary function of insulin is to
facilitate the transport of carbohydrate, specifically glucose,
from the blood into the muscle cell, where it can then be metabolized
to produce energy that will enable the muscle cell to do work. Insulin
stimulates a certain enzyme that enables the glycogen manufacturing
process to proceed at a faster rate. Hence, insulin levels are a
critical factor in regulating muscle glycogen synthesis.
The pancreas releases insulin when it detects carbohydrate, in
the form of glucose, in the bloodstream. Therefore, all you need
to do to get carbohydrate to your working muscles while running
is consume simple sugars that produce a quick insulin spike. The
best way to do this is to consume a sports drink containing 6 to
8 percent carbohydrate (in the form of sucrose, fructose, etc.)
while running. Why 6 to 8 percent? Because taking in any more than
this can lead to bloating and nausea, and a vast body of research
has shown that drinks in the 6 to 8 percent range increase endurance
dramatically by sparing stored muscle glycogen.
However, new research out of the University of Texas may alter
our view of what constitutes an ideal sports drink. Texas researchers
have focused on the benefits of some protein included in a drink.
They have shown that, in the right proportions, protein provides
a synergistic effect, increasing the energy efficiency of every
gram of carbohydrate consumed.
Like carbohydrate, protein is a potent stimulator of insulin release.
Insulin may be a most important biological factor in controlling
energy use during exercise. When protein is added to a carbohydrate
drink, an additional increase in insulin is the result. In addition,
protein provides other benefits: branched chain amino acids also
have been shown to delay fatigue.
The obvious question is why protein isn't an essential component
of every sports drink. When protein is consumed in large amounts,
gastric emptying slows. Slowing of gastric emptying delays water
and carbohydrate absorption; the last thing you want to do during
performance. This could be a major problem if a sports drink contains
a high concentration of protein per serving.
Research has shown that the ideal ratio of carbohydrate to protein
for a sports drink is four grams of carbohydrate per gram of protein.
With this ratio, a sports drink can deliver the benefits of protein
(greater stimulation of insulin) without negatively impacting fluid
and carbohydrate replenishment (delayed gastric emptying).
The superiority of this special ratio has been demonstrated in
scientific studies. In one study, athletes were given either water,
a standard 7.75% carbohydrate sports drink, or a 7.75% carbohydrate
and 1.9% protein sports drink (Accelerade) during exercise of varying
intensities. The results were quite dramatic. The athletes consuming
the carbohydrate-protein drink in the 4:1 ratio had an amazing 24%
improvement in endurance compared those consuming the standard 7.75%
carbohydrate drink and a whopping 54% improvement compared to those
who drank only water.
The researchers concluded that the addition of protein increased
insulin and glucose uptake by the muscle providing an immediate
source of energy to the exercising muscle. The result: a sparing
of muscle and a significant improvement in endurance.
So you see, insulin is more friend that foe to runners during exercise.
A wise runner will take advantage of this fact with a solid fluid
consumption strategy for workouts and races. Next time, I will talk
about the role of insulin in post-run recovery. - Matt Fitzgerald
Ed. note: I use Accelerade. I have found it to be the best
sports drink and backed up by the best research. Jeff Gallowa
The Athlete's Kitchen
"Helping active people win with good nutrition."
Copyright October 2001: Nancy Clark, MS, RD
EXERCISE & WEIGHT CONTROL: Myths, Truths and Gender Differences
"I'm training for a marathon with hopes of losing weight..."
"Why does my husband shed pounds when he starts an exercise
program and I don't???"
"Does exercising with an empty stomach burn more fat?"
Active people commonly link exercise with weight loss. They believe
the more they exercise, the more weight they'll lose. Yet, that
is not always the case. Many exercisers end up discouraged when
they fail to lose weight despite regular workouts. Women, in particular,
commonly complain about lack of results from their exercise program.
Men, in comparison, seem to simply add on exercise, (subtract beer
and fatty foods) and lose weight with ease.
If you are feeling frustrated by a lack of weight loss from your
current exercise program, keep reading. This article might help
you understand some myths about exercise and weight control.
Myth: Exercise kills your appetite. Exercise may temporarily
kill your appetite, but hunger will catch-up with you within 1 to
2 hours. Appetite is partially regulated by temperature control.
Hence, if you feel hot after a hard workout, you may experience
a temporary drop in appetite. However, if you are chilled, such
as after swimming, you may feel ravenous. Exercise's effect on appetite
varies according to gender. Regularly exercising male rats tend
to lose their appetite and drop weight; female rats get a bigger
appetite, eat more and maintain weight. Limited human research supports
those findings. Post-exercise appetite also varies according to
body fatness. Studies with obese women who added moderate exercise
to their sedentary lifestyle indicates they did not eat more, hence
they lost weight. Diet and exercise studies with men suggest the
fatter they were, the more weight they lost (in comparison to their
less-fat peers) because they failed to compensate for the calories
burned during exercise. Myth: The more you exercise, the more weight
you'll lose. Often, the more you exercise, the hungrier you get
and the more you eat. For example, you may spend an hour on the
StairMaster burning off 500 calories, and then devour twelve Oreos
(600 calories) in less than six minutes. After a hard workout, your
body is hungry. Your soul may also be hungry for a reward. After
all, you now deserve a treat for having survived the workout, right...???
Men who add on exercise are likely to lose more weight than do
women. In one study with previously sedentary, normal weight men
and women who participated in an 18 month marathon training program,
the men increased their intake by about 500 calories per day; the
women increased by only 60 calories-despite having added on 50 miles/week
of running. The men lost about 5 lbs. fat; the women none (Int'l
J Sports Med, Vol 10 (S1),1989). Similarly, other studies suggest
normal weight women fail to lose fat when they add on exercise...
The effects of exercise on weight loss are complex and unclear.
Nature seems to efficiently replenish fat stores of lean athletes
and prevent them from wasting away. Lean female athletes, in particular,
struggle harder than do males to lose body fat and maintain an even
leaner physique. In terms of evolution, Nature wants women to have
fat and be fertile; men are supposed to be lean hunters.
Myth: You'll lose weight fastest if you exercise at low intensity
(i.e., do " fat burning exercise") on an empty stomach.
"Fat-burning exercise"--a low intensity workout that burns
proportionately more fat than carbohydrates (glycogen)--is deemed
optimal for weight loss. Aerobic exercisers commonly believe they
will lose more body fat if they exercise before eating, because
fat will be the predominant fuel. Wrong. For fat/weight control,
you need to look at the whole day's calorie balance--not just at
what you burn during exercise. If, over the course of the whole
day, you create a calorie deficit by burning off more calories than
you eat, you'll lose body fat. However, if you consume more calories
than you expend (as can easily happen if overeat at night), you'll
end up gaining fat. The biggest benefits of low impact, fat-burning
exercise are 1) you are less likely to get injured, and 2) you are
able to exercise for longer and thereby burn more total calories.
The truth is intense exercise may actually contribute to lower percent
body fat. Research on 1,366 women and 1,257 men suggests those who
did high intensity exercise tended to have less body fat than those
who did lower intensity "fat-burning" exercise. (Am J
Clin Nutr. Feb '90)
Myth: Injured athletes gain weight due to lack of exercise.
Weight gained during injury is generally due to overeating, not
underexercising. Overeating happens when injured athletes eat lumber-jack
portions, regardless of their activity level, and ignore the decreased
appetite that accompanies decreased exercise. Injured athletes who
sit around bored, lonely and depressed may also find comfort in
food (despite discomfort with weight gain). When injured, some very
thin athletes migrate to their natural weight, i.e., the weight
they would naturally maintain without rigorous exercise and restricted
calories. Although they may perceive this as "getting fat,"
they may be simply "catching up" and attaining the physique
that is appropriate for their genetics.
The bottom line: Nature does an excellent job of defending
a healthy weight despite adverse conditions. Given extreme amounts
of exercise can be interpreted as a famine (due to the high calorie
deficit), "food efficiency " may develop in people who
maintain a chronic energy deficit. Women are particularly protected
by Nature and fail to lose as much fat as do men (who are supposed
to be leaner so they can more efficiently hunt and gather food).
If you are exercising to lose weight, I encourage you to separate
exercise and weight. Yes, you should exercise for health, fitness,
stress relief and, most importantly, for ENJOYMENT. (After all,
the E in exercise stands for enjoyment.) I discourage you from exercising
to burn off calories. Under those conditions, exercise feels like
punishment for having excess body fat. Grueling exercise fails to
get integrated into a life-long, health promotion plan.
Sports nutritionist Nancy Clark, MS, RD counsels individuals at
SportsMedicine Associates in Brookline MA. Her best seller, Nancy
Clark's Sports Nutrition Guidebook, Second Edition, offers abundant
information on how to lose weight and maintain energy to exercise.
It is available via www.nancyclarkrd.com
or by sending $23 to Sports Nutrition Services, 830 Boylston St.
#205, Brookline MA 02467.
- Doable Resolutions
- The Frozen Yogurt Myth
- Immune-Building the Natural Way
- Nancy Clark: Weight Management Update
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